An Introduction to Signal Conditioning

Different types of measurement and different types of sensor architectures have different requirements for signal conditioning. Take low-voltage analog signals, for example. These types of signals will generally need to be amplified and then filtered to decrease background noise before digitization. Different types of sensors require excitation by an outside voltage to measure mechanical changes as a function of varying electrical resistivity.

In this article, TT Electronics will detail the foundations of signal conditioning in more depth.

Signal Conditioning: Amplification & Attenuation

In electronics, amplification and attenuation are opposites. Analog signals are susceptible to weakening during transmission as a result of background noise. Signal-to-noise ratio refers to the ratio of signal strength to unwanted background interference.

Amplification is the process of increasing this ratio by increasing the voltage level of the input signal. Conversely, attenuation is the process of decreasing the input amplitude. For example, to get the input amplitude to fit within the ideal range of the device digitizer.

Spectrum Filtering & Signal Isolation

Signal conditioning regularly needs a filtered and isolated input signal to eliminate undesirable background noise and eradicate voltage signals that lie far beyond the range of the in-line digitizer.

Filtering is frequently used to discard noise that lies outside of a previously defined range of frequency. Isolation is similar, but it is mainly used to protect the data acquisition or control system from potentially damaging voltage spikes.

Signal Linearization

Linearization is a type of signal interpretation used when sensor equipment creates signals that do not show a linear relationship to the actual measurement. It is used to chart the input signal voltage from the sensor against the corresponding value of the physical measurement. This signal conditioning process is for industrial temperature measurements.

Signal Conditioning with TT Electronics

TT Electronics is dedicated to innovation in all areas of engineering and technology, producing a suite of advanced products for some of the highest specification worldwide markets. We offer a wide array of sensors and integrated precision resistor networks with signal conditioning capabilities.

This information has been sourced, reviewed and adapted from materials provided by TT Electronics plc.

For more information on this source, please visit TT Electronics plc.


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