A time-of-flight sensor (ToF sensor) is a range imaging system that uses the time-of-flight of an artificial signal to calculate distances between the camera and the object at each point in the image. This article discusses the working, industrial applications, commercial examples, and future outlook of time-of-flight sensors.
Image Credit: ioat/Shutterstock.com
Time-of-Flight Sensors: How Do They Work?
Time-of-Flight (ToF) is the amount of time it takes an item, particle, or wave to travel a given distance. The time-of-flight technology is identical to the sonar technology.
ToF is a technique for determining the distance between a detector and an object using the time delay between the transmission of a signal and its return to the detector after being reflected by an object. Sound and light are the most frequent forms of signals (also called carriers) that can be employed with the Time-of-Flight concept.
Light-based Time-of-Flight (ToF) sensors calculate distance based on the time it takes light to travel from the sensor's transmitter to the object and then return to the sensor's receiver.
Direct ToF sensors create nanosecond-long laser waves and then detect the time it takes for part of the transmitted light to return. Indirect ToF sensors emit constant, modulated light and compute the distance to an object based on the phases of the reflected light.
Light is the primary signal employed in time-of-flight sensors, although sound may also suffice. Light detection and ranging (LiDAR) technique is often used by ToF sensors to estimate the distance of an item using lasers.
The distance within the ToF sensor is determined by a computing unit. These components execute distinct functions and collaborate to give the distance-calculating variables.
Industrial Applications of Time-of-Flight Sensors
Time-of-Flight (ToF) sensors are used for various purposes, including robot guidance, vehicle tracking, counting people, and detecting objects.
Time-of-Flight (ToF) sensors have proved to be a revolution in people counting technologies. ToF sensors enable people-counting applications that provide exceptional insights into a number of essential business indicators, such as periodic occupancy counts and space optimization, with the highest level of accuracy and specific concerns for personal privacy and data security.
Many smartphones are now equipped with time-of-flight sensors. These are mostly used to increase the quality of photographs by supplying information about the subject and backdrop to the camera software.
Time-of-flight sensors may be used in support and safety capabilities for sophisticated automotive applications such as proactive pedestrian safety, precrash monitoring, and indoor applications such as out-of-position (OOP) identification.
These sensors can also find many applications in the field of robotics. Mobile robots can rapidly generate a map of their environment, allowing them to avoid obstacles or follow a human. As the calculation of distance is straightforward, minimal processing power is required.
Commercial Examples of Time-of-Flight-Sensors
Time-of-Flight (ToF) is a potent technique for precise, cost-effective distance sensors. The companies listed below are some of the industry leaders that provide novel time-of-flight sensor systems.
Analog Device Incorporation (ADI) provides industry-leading products and techniques that help facilitate and improve performance for ToF sensors and cameras, such as the best resolution CMOS image processing chips (1 Megapixel), depth calculation and computation, laser drivers, and power control, as well as design tools and software/firmware that facilitate the rapid implementation of ToF strategies.
TeraBee is another industry leader that offers cutting-edge ToF sensors. TeraBee's TeraRanger Evo sensors comprise an optoelectronic sensing element (black module) and a selection of backboard (yellow model) that plugs in to offer the sensor with its data link and energy management features without the requirement for adapters or complicated cabling.
TeraRanger Evo 60m is TeraBee's flagship time-of-flight sensor with the greatest range. Due to its 60-meter detection range in interior situations, it may be used as a rangefinder, guidance, and collision-avoidance tool for robots, as well as for detecting materials stock level.
Conclusion and Future Outlook
A time-of-flight (ToF) sensor is a compact and lightweight sensor that detects depth and distance using the time-of-flight concept. It aids in calculating distances by using the time required for photons to move from the transmitter of a sensor to the object and return to the receiver. It provides insight into important business key performance indicators, such as periodic occupancy counts and space optimization.
A ToF sensor is a dependable and cost-effective technology that offers a greater range, more accurate and quicker readings, and enhanced safety and precision compared to other distance sensors.
In 2021, the worldwide market for time-of-flight sensors was estimated at $3.28 billion. The market is anticipated to reach USD 13,93 billion by 2030, expanding at a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 17.44% during the projected period (2022–2030).
The increasing use of ToF sensors in the car sector to facilitate hand position interaction and control the sunroof, air conditioning, and radio system is one of the important market-influencing aspects. Moreover, the expanding worldwide population is fueling the need for consumer devices such as smartphones, tablets, computers, and smartwatches.
References and Further Reading
Analog Devices. (2022) Analog Devices 3D Time of Flight (ToF). Available at: https://www.analog.com/en/applications/technology/3d-time-of-flight.html
Hansard, M., Lee, S., Choi, O., & Horaud, R. (2012) Time-of-flight cameras: Principles, Methods and Applications. Springer.
Mordor Intelligence. (2022) Time-Of-Flight (ToF) Sensor Market - Growth, Trends, Covid-19 Impact, And Forecasts (2022 - 2027).
Straits Research. (2022) Time-of-Flight (ToF) Sensor Market.
TeraBee. (2022) Time-of-Flight principle. Available at: https://www.terabee.com/time-of-flight-principle/
Disclaimer: The views expressed here are those of the author expressed in their private capacity and do not necessarily represent the views of AZoM.com Limited T/A AZoNetwork the owner and operator of this website. This disclaimer forms part of the Terms and conditions of use of this website.