Simular: A Reaction Calorimeter

The Simular is a reaction calorimeter that is used within process development to investigate the thermal properties of a chemical reaction under the proposed operating conditions. The Simular allows for the optimization of process conditions for maximum product yield and minimal safety hazards, based on the derived thermodynamic and kinetic information of the reaction.

The Simular enables the determination of the plant cooling capacity required to keep a reaction isothermal (Tp), and the calculation of the maximum temperature the main reaction will reach in the event of a thermal runaway.  The parameter known as the Maximum Temperature of Synthesis Reaction (MTSR) is a critical value in determining whether the emergency cooling capacity in a plant is capable of dealing with an increase in temperature. The Simular can be used to determine safer reaction conditions.

The Simular supports both the classical heat flow calorimetry method, and the quicker, more efficient, calibration-free power compensation calorimetry method, allowing selection of the most appropriate method for the scenario that is of interest.

Features and Options

Vessel Types 

  • Insulated reactors in glass, Stainless Steel and Hastelloy.
    • Optional: titanium and zirconium (temperature and pressure range may differ).
  • Volume range 500 ml to 2 L (1 L standard).

Temperature Control 

  • -40 ⁰C to 250 ⁰C as standard (circulator dependent)
  • Optional : -80 ⁰C, up to 350 ⁰C (circulator dependent)

High Pressure and Vacuum Systems 

  • Stainless Steel and Hastelloy: vacuum to 100 bar (typical).
  • Glass: vacuum 0.05 bara to 1.0 bar (typical).

Sampling Systems 

  • Through active pumps, manual dip tubes, automated level control, or multisampling units, like the ASU.
  • Optional: gas sampling.

Reagent Addition 

  • Standard liquid feed pump and balance combination.
  • Optional liquid feeds:
    • Syringe pumps for low flow rate feed
  • Optional gas feeds:
    • Pressurized vessels for faster reaction rates and/or highly volatile reagents.
    • Bottle/balance combinations for gas feeds.
    • Mass flow controller for gas feeds (up to 2000 ml/min).
    • Automatic solenoid valves for controlled gas addition.

Control Options 

  • All relevant inputs can be logged, enabling automated monitoring and, where appropriate, feedback control of the reactor system, such as:
    • Reactor stirrer speed and torque.
    • Liquid feed rate.
    • pH.
    • Pressure
    • Volume of uptake of gas during a reaction.
    • Gas flow rate regulation (volume or mass).
    • Gas evolution rate monitoring.
    • Automated sampling and dilution during chemical reactions.
    • Calculation of condenser cooling duty.

Sensor Options 

  • Temperature, pressure, pH, turbidity, conductivity.
  • Optional: Integration of third-party probes, such as in-situ FTIR, particle sizing probes, and Raman probes.


  • Standard unit includes an automatically controlled 100 Ncm torque motor.
  • Glass reactors: up to 600 rpm.
  • Metal reactors: up to 1000 rpm, with an overhead magnetic drive.
  • Optional: Automated stirring with higher torque rate motors are available up to 2000 rpm/400 Ncm.

Intelligent Software Control and Analysis 

  • labCONSOL software control enables regular data logging, multi-step recipes, parameter control, and feedback loops. The software adds a responsive intelligence to the Simular system and still delivers an intuitive interface that needs only minimal training to run quickly.
  • Offline calculations for complex experiments can be performed using the iQ software, allowing the calculation of calorimetric values.
  • Optional: Sampling rate automation; adjusts to allow greater resolution during periods of experimental interest.

Safety Features 

  • Automatic user-configurable reaction condition monitoring and shutdown procedures, to ensure user safety.
  • Automatic hardware and software fail-safes are installed on every system.

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